Human Kidneys are major organs that play a very important role in keeping our body healthy and clean by excreting waste and toxic substances from body
In recent days there has been a huge increase in patients suffering from kidney disease.
Kidneys are located at the superior and posterior side of the abdomen, either side of the vertebral column protected from lower ribs.
They are bean shaped about 10cm long, 6 cm wide and 4 cm thick and weigh about 150 grams approximately.
Urine excretion ➡ Kidneys~ureters~urinary bladder~urethra
Bladder of an adult can have the capacity of storing urine about 400-500 ml.
Function of Human Kidneys
Our kidneys play a very important role in our daily life.
- Regulation of blood level
The kidneys help to regulate the blood level of several jobs such as Na+, k+, Ca++, Cl-, and p+.
- Regulations of blood pH
The kidney excretes a variable amount of H+ into the urine and conserves HCO3- which are an important buffer of hydrogen in the blood.
Both of these activities help regulate blood pH.
- Regulation of blood volume
The kidneys adjust blood volume by conserving or eliminating water in the urine. Increase in blood volume can increase blood pressure and decrease in blood volume can decrease blood pressure.
- Regulation of blood pressure
The kidney also help to regulate blood pressure by secreting the enzyme renin which activates the renin angiotensin-aldosterone pathway.
Increased renin causes an increase in blood pressure.
- Production of hormones
The kidney produces two hormones.
Calciferol – the active form of vitamin D helps to regulate calcium homeostasis. Erythropoietin- stimulate the production of RBCs.
- Regulation of blood glucose
Like the liver, the kidneys can use the amino acid glutamine in gluconeogenesis ( the synthesis of new glucose molecules ).
They can then release glucose into blood to maintain a normal blood glucose level.
- Excretion of waste products
By forming urine the kidneys help to excrete waste substances that have no useful functions in our body.
Some wastes excreted in the urine from metabolic reactions in the body. This includes ammonia and urea from deamination of amino acid bilirubin from the catabolism of Hemoglobin, creatinine from the phosphate in muscle fibres and uric acid from catabolism of nucleic acid
How to keep our kidneys healthy?
PRECAUTION FOR HEALTHY KIDNEYS
- Regular exercises.
- Having a healthy diet,full of fresh fruits and vegetables.
- Less salt after 40 years of age.
- Say strictly no to smoking, tobacco products and alcohol.
- Drink sufficient amount of water about 3 liters per day.
- Do not overuse of painkillers
- Maintain weight according to your age.